[HAIKAI ICHIMAIZURI ENSEMBLE]

Haikai ichimaizuri is a haikai poem (haikai being the forerunner of haiku poetry) printed on a single sheet of paper. It was not produced for sale but for personal distribution among haijins (haiku poets). They mostly were printed with an illustration. We are more familiar with surimono (printed matter) of kyoka (comic tanka), e-goyomi (an illustrated calendar) and ukiyo-e (printed illustration). But also in the area of haikai, a great number of ichimaizuri was produced.

[TYPES OF HAIKAI ICHIMAIZURI]

There are many types of haikai ichimaizuri: New Year's; calendar; spring; autumn; celebration for one's longevity; announcement of changing one's name; sights and historic spots; pastoral landscapes; commodities of daily life and so on.
 
[THE HISTORY OF HAIKAI ICHIMAIZURI]

The earliest record of haikai ichimaizuri is from Ransetsu's New Year's haiku printed in 1702. But it started and took root between the Hoei and the Kyoho eras. From the Hoei to the early Kyoho eras, two or three colored prints with illustrations started to be produced. For example, "Randai Saitan" (1710) portrays an indigo-colored print of the lucky treasure ship. "Shin'an Keitan" (1717) has a two-colored print of paulownia. In those times, the powerful samurai who were daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) such as Omura Randai (lord of Omura fief in Hizen [now Nagasaki and Saga prefecture]) and hatamoto (retainer of Shogun) became patrons of Edo-za (professional haijins' guild in Edo). It is considered that their activities made producing of haikai ichimaizuri popular. Afterwards Suzuki Harunobu produced pictures and then many-colored prints in 1765. Because of his influence, haikai ichimaizuri also became a gorgeous seven or eight-colored print, and the element of tasteful amusement gets stronger than before. In Kyoto and Osaka, Yosa Buson became the center of producing haikai ichimaizuri actively, and left some great works from the An'ei to the Temmei eras (1772-1801). Little change happened during the Kansei era (1789-1801). After the Bunka-bunsei eras (1804-30) however, haikai ichimaizuri became more popular and highly thought of. This tendency gets stronger in the bakumatsu (the last days of Tokugawa Shogunate) era. In the Meiji era (1868-1912), haikai ichimaizuri was influenced by Western civilization. Offset haikai ichimaizuri came into being in the Showa era (1926-1989). The last haikai ichimaizuri in existence is printed in 1941. And after this work, no haikai ichimaizuri has been proven to be made.
 

[MATERIALS, SIZES AND FORMATS]


Most of materials of haikai ichimaizuri are a thick and stiff type of paper like hosho-gami (thick paper made from a kind of mulberry tree) and torinoko (thick paper made from a kind of daphne). And a few haikai ichimaizuri used thin cho-shi (thin paper made from a kind of mulberry tree). Some of haikai ichimaizuri was printed on chirimen-gami (crumpled cho-shi imitated with a rumpled kind of cloth named chirimen).
Sizes are described according to the manner in which a standard hosho-gami (o-bosho, 39*55cm), complete sheet (o-bai-ban in ukiyo-e field), cut into two (o-ban), cut into four (chu-ban), cut into eight (yatsugiri-ban), cut once horizontally (hansai), cut three times horizontally, shikishi (square sheet) size (kaku-ban), post card size, very small size and so on.
E.g.: Jinshin Saitan Tori-zukushi (48.4*70.5cm) Kitsuei "Fuyu no hi o" (9.4*10.4cm)
And it is common for ichimaizuri to fold it in double or quarters and put it into an envelope, which has ichimaizuri title on it. Sometimes receiver's name paper or noshi (decorative mark for present) was glued on the envelope.

[SIZES]

Sizes are described according to the manner in which an o-bosho size (42*57cm) sheet has been cut up.

[ILLUSTRATORS, ENGRAVERS, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS]

The illustrators of haikai ichimaizuri were amateur painters, like haijins and literary figures, or professional painters, (such as Kano school, ukiyo-e artists, Shijo school, Maruyama school and so on). Sometimes engravers' names appear on the work. An investigation about printers has not been done yet. "Yoshida Uhaku", "Yoshida Gyosen" in the early age, "Okamoto Shogyo" in Edo and "Kitsusen" (a publisher of Buson's surimono) in Kyoto in the middle age of the Edo period, "Raku Kikuhei (Kiku-ya Heibe)", "Katsuta Zensuke", "Omi-ya Matashichi" from the Kasei to the bakumatsu eras, their seals are found in the corner of the ichimaizuri. This apparently means publishers and engravers made ichimaizuri at their customers' requests, though they were not for sale.
 
[ELABORATE HAIKAI ICHIMAIZURI]

DAISHO-REKI (Special Calendar for the Lunar Year)

This type of calendar was needed because the number of days in each month changed by the year. The lunar calendar has "dai" (a month which has a large number of days) and "sho" (a month which has a small numbers of days). There were various kinds of ideas, riddles and puns to guess, and they were interesting to read. For example, in 1816 ichimaizuri in the Sakurai Takejiro collection, the characters of the "dai" month are hidden in the illustration of a crane. Kinfu's ichimaizuri in Kira Sueo's collection is remarkable as the last daisho-reki. Because it is a calendar of 1872, and November of that year the solar calendar was adopted. Seigo painted its illustration. The subject is a monkey in hanten because 1872 was the year of monkey.

SUGOROKU (Japanese Backgammon)

For example, "Jinshin Saitan Tori-zukushi" by Beio in 1752, "Ume-zukushi Kichirei Sugoroku" (illustrated by Hanabusa Ittei, published by Matsumoto Zenbe) in 1765 is in Tokyo Central Library's collection. The latter shows the pleasure of the Edo-za's haijin with a haiku about plum flowers and illustrations on Sugoroku paper. CHIRIMEN-GAMI (Crumpled Surimono Which Imitate Chirimen-gami) To make this type of surimono, printers used the technique of rolling a rod with color printed ichimaizuri and push to crumple. Eight pieces of ichimaizuri in the collection of Mr. Kato Sadahiko such as "Kataoka Nizaemon Shumei Hiro Haikai", "Meiwa Sannen Jisei Sasase-taiya Seden-koji Nijugokaiki Tsuizen" are this type of surimono. All of them are concerning actors. This type of surimono is very rare. SENMEN-GATA (The Shape of a Fan) Tango Sekiko's spring surimono in Sakurai Takejiro's collection is this type of surimono. It contains an illustration and haiku on the fan shaped paper. Takudo illustrated it.

CHIRIMEN-GAMI (Crumpled Surimono Which Imitate Chirimen-gami)

To make this type of surimono, printers used the technique of rolling a rod with color printed ichimaizuri and push to crumple. Eight pieces of ichimaizuri in the collection of Mr. Kato Sadahiko such as "Kataoka Nizaemon Shumei Hiro Haikai", "Meiwa Sannen Jisei Sasase-taiya Seden-koji Nijugokaiki Tsuizen" are this type of surimono. All of them are concerning actors. This type of surimono is very rare.

SENMEN-GATA (The Shape of a Fan)

Tango Sekiko's spring surimono in Sakurai Takejiro's collection is this type of surimono. It contains an illustration and haiku on the fan shaped paper. Takudo illustrated it.

OTHERS

There are many kinds of ichimaizuri, one used karazuri (embossment) or bokashi (gradation) technique like ukiyo-e, one printed white letters on a China ink background surrounded by a gold frame, one had a daring design such as making whirls with 30 haiku pieces under an illustration of a crane's flight.
Haikai ichimaizuri was not for sale but produced personal with their own tastes. So most of haikai ichimaizuri are unconventional, unique and daring. They are interesting also in their designs.
 

[CONCLUSION]


Haikai Ichimaizuri is a special style of ichimaizuri, which blends haikai with illustrations. Many people enjoyed producing elaborate haikai ichimaizuri. Ichimaizuri has a variety of subjects; products and events of the four seasons, celebrations and memorials, flowers, birds, small creatures, commodities of daily life and so on. Haijins enjoyed their leisure in producing these haikai ichimaizuri. It isn't too much to say that the fashion of haikai ichimaizuri was a remarkable occurrence in the Edo era's (1600-1868) culture.

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]
Shinwa Women's University "Haikai Ichimaizuri no Miryoku" (1984)

Muko City Library "Dai-go-kai Utsukushii Hon Ten -Haikai Ichimaizuri to E-baisho-" (1991)

Kakimori Bunko "Haikai Ichimaizuri" (1991)

Chiba City Museum "Cultivated Gifts: Surimono of the Edo Period" (1600-1868)

Kira Sueo "Nihon Shoshi-gaku Taikei 84 Haisho no Sekai" (1999, Seisho-do)

"Buson to Haikai surimono", "Buson no surimono 'Uchu Jinbutsu zu'", "Haikai Ichimaizuri ni tsuite", "Haikai Ichimaizuri to Daimyo-tachi", "Sanada Kikutsura no Ichimaizuri" are included in this book.

 


Copyright (C)School of Literature, Waseda University 2000 All Rights Reserved .
First drafted 2000