Haikai ichimaizuri is a haikai poem (haikai being the
forerunner of haiku poetry) printed on a single sheet of paper. It
was not produced for sale but for personal distribution among haijins
(haiku poets). They mostly were printed with an illustration. We are
more familiar with surimono (printed matter) of kyoka (comic tanka),
e-goyomi (an illustrated calendar) and ukiyo-e (printed illustration).
But also in the area of haikai, a great number of ichimaizuri was
OF HAIKAI ICHIMAIZURI]
There are many types of haikai ichimaizuri: New Year's;
calendar; spring; autumn; celebration for one's longevity; announcement
of changing one's name; sights and historic spots; pastoral landscapes;
commodities of daily life and so on.
HISTORY OF HAIKAI ICHIMAIZURI]
The earliest record of haikai ichimaizuri is from Ransetsu's
New Year's haiku printed in 1702. But it started and took root between
the Hoei and the Kyoho eras. From the Hoei to the early Kyoho eras,
two or three colored prints with illustrations started to be produced.
For example, "Randai Saitan" (1710) portrays an indigo-colored print
of the lucky treasure ship. "Shin'an Keitan" (1717) has a two-colored
print of paulownia. In those times, the powerful samurai who were
daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) such as Omura Randai (lord of Omura
fief in Hizen [now Nagasaki and Saga prefecture]) and hatamoto (retainer
of Shogun) became patrons of Edo-za (professional haijins' guild in
Edo). It is considered that their activities made producing of haikai
ichimaizuri popular. Afterwards Suzuki Harunobu produced pictures
and then many-colored prints in 1765. Because of his influence, haikai
ichimaizuri also became a gorgeous seven or eight-colored print, and
the element of tasteful amusement gets stronger than before. In Kyoto
and Osaka, Yosa Buson became the center of producing haikai ichimaizuri
actively, and left some great works from the An'ei to the Temmei eras
(1772-1801). Little change happened during the Kansei era (1789-1801).
After the Bunka-bunsei eras (1804-30) however, haikai ichimaizuri
became more popular and highly thought of. This tendency gets stronger
in the bakumatsu (the last days of Tokugawa Shogunate) era. In the
Meiji era (1868-1912), haikai ichimaizuri was influenced by Western
civilization. Offset haikai ichimaizuri came into being in the Showa
era (1926-1989). The last haikai ichimaizuri in existence is printed
in 1941. And after this work, no haikai ichimaizuri has been proven
to be made.
SIZES AND FORMATS]
Most of materials of haikai ichimaizuri are a thick
and stiff type of paper like hosho-gami (thick paper made from a
kind of mulberry tree) and torinoko (thick paper made from a kind
of daphne). And a few haikai ichimaizuri used thin cho-shi (thin
paper made from a kind of mulberry tree). Some of haikai ichimaizuri
was printed on chirimen-gami (crumpled cho-shi imitated with a rumpled
kind of cloth named chirimen).
Sizes are described according to the manner in which a standard
hosho-gami (o-bosho, 39*55cm), complete sheet (o-bai-ban in ukiyo-e
field), cut into two (o-ban), cut into four (chu-ban), cut into
eight (yatsugiri-ban), cut once horizontally (hansai), cut three
times horizontally, shikishi (square sheet) size (kaku-ban), post
card size, very small size and so on.
E.g.: Jinshin Saitan Tori-zukushi (48.4*70.5cm) Kitsuei "Fuyu no
hi o" (9.4*10.4cm)
And it is common for ichimaizuri to fold it in double or quarters
and put it into an envelope, which has ichimaizuri title on it.
Sometimes receiver's name paper or noshi (decorative mark for present)
was glued on the envelope.
Sizes are described according to the manner in
which an o-bosho size (42*57cm) sheet has been cut up.
ENGRAVERS, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS]
The illustrators of haikai ichimaizuri were amateur
painters, like haijins and literary figures, or professional painters,
(such as Kano school, ukiyo-e artists, Shijo school, Maruyama school
and so on). Sometimes engravers' names appear on the work. An investigation
about printers has not been done yet. "Yoshida Uhaku", "Yoshida Gyosen"
in the early age, "Okamoto Shogyo" in Edo and "Kitsusen" (a publisher
of Buson's surimono) in Kyoto in the middle age of the Edo period,
"Raku Kikuhei (Kiku-ya Heibe)", "Katsuta Zensuke", "Omi-ya Matashichi"
from the Kasei to the bakumatsu eras, their seals are found in the
corner of the ichimaizuri. This apparently means publishers and engravers
made ichimaizuri at their customers' requests, though they were not
DAISHO-REKI (Special Calendar for the Lunar Year)
This type of calendar was needed
because the number of days in each month changed by the year. The
lunar calendar has "dai" (a month which has a large number of days)
and "sho" (a month which has a small numbers of days). There were
various kinds of ideas, riddles and puns to guess, and they were
interesting to read. For example, in 1816 ichimaizuri in the Sakurai
Takejiro collection, the characters of the "dai" month are hidden
in the illustration of a crane. Kinfu's ichimaizuri in Kira Sueo's
collection is remarkable as the last daisho-reki. Because it is
a calendar of 1872, and November of that year the solar calendar
was adopted. Seigo painted its illustration. The subject is a monkey
in hanten because 1872 was the year of monkey.
SUGOROKU (Japanese Backgammon)
For example, "Jinshin Saitan Tori-zukushi"
by Beio in 1752, "Ume-zukushi Kichirei Sugoroku" (illustrated by
Hanabusa Ittei, published by Matsumoto Zenbe) in 1765 is in Tokyo
Central Library's collection. The latter shows the pleasure of the
Edo-za's haijin with a haiku about plum flowers and illustrations
on Sugoroku paper. CHIRIMEN-GAMI (Crumpled Surimono Which Imitate
Chirimen-gami) To make this type of surimono, printers used the
technique of rolling a rod with color printed ichimaizuri and push
to crumple. Eight pieces of ichimaizuri in the collection of Mr.
Kato Sadahiko such as "Kataoka Nizaemon Shumei Hiro Haikai", "Meiwa
Sannen Jisei Sasase-taiya Seden-koji Nijugokaiki Tsuizen" are this
type of surimono. All of them are concerning actors. This type of
surimono is very rare. SENMEN-GATA (The Shape of a Fan) Tango Sekiko's
spring surimono in Sakurai Takejiro's collection is this type of
surimono. It contains an illustration and haiku on the fan shaped
paper. Takudo illustrated it.
CHIRIMEN-GAMI (Crumpled Surimono Which Imitate
To make this type of surimono,
printers used the technique of rolling a rod with color printed
ichimaizuri and push to crumple. Eight pieces of ichimaizuri in
the collection of Mr. Kato Sadahiko such as "Kataoka Nizaemon Shumei
Hiro Haikai", "Meiwa Sannen Jisei Sasase-taiya Seden-koji Nijugokaiki
Tsuizen" are this type of surimono. All of them are concerning actors.
This type of surimono is very rare.
SENMEN-GATA (The Shape of a Fan)
Tango Sekiko's spring surimono in
Sakurai Takejiro's collection is this type of surimono. It contains
an illustration and haiku on the fan shaped paper. Takudo illustrated
There are many kinds of ichimaizuri,
one used karazuri (embossment) or bokashi (gradation) technique
like ukiyo-e, one printed white letters on a China ink background
surrounded by a gold frame, one had a daring design such as making
whirls with 30 haiku pieces under an illustration of a crane's flight.
Haikai ichimaizuri was not for sale but produced personal with their
own tastes. So most of haikai ichimaizuri are unconventional, unique
and daring. They are interesting also in their designs.
Haikai Ichimaizuri is a special style of ichimaizuri,
which blends haikai with illustrations. Many people enjoyed producing
elaborate haikai ichimaizuri. Ichimaizuri has a variety of subjects;
products and events of the four seasons, celebrations and memorials,
flowers, birds, small creatures, commodities of daily life and so
on. Haijins enjoyed their leisure in producing these haikai ichimaizuri.
It isn't too much to say that the fashion of haikai ichimaizuri
was a remarkable occurrence in the Edo era's (1600-1868) culture.
|Shinwa Women's University "Haikai Ichimaizuri
no Miryoku" (1984)
Muko City Library "Dai-go-kai Utsukushii
Hon Ten -Haikai Ichimaizuri to E-baisho-" (1991)
Kakimori Bunko "Haikai Ichimaizuri"
Chiba City Museum "Cultivated Gifts:
Surimono of the Edo Period" (1600-1868)
Kira Sueo "Nihon Shoshi-gaku Taikei
84 Haisho no Sekai" (1999, Seisho-do)
"Buson to Haikai surimono", "Buson
no surimono 'Uchu Jinbutsu zu'", "Haikai Ichimaizuri ni tsuite",
"Haikai Ichimaizuri to Daimyo-tachi", "Sanada Kikutsura no Ichimaizuri"
are included in this book.